New York: Guilford. An increasing replication of studies find a correlation between religious belief and practice and mental and physical health and longevity. Am J Psychiatry 1981; 146: 67 – 72.Google Scholar. Guest Editors: Curtis W. Hart and Harold G. Koenig; Additional Original Papers . PLAY. Other studies note many mental health benefits of religious involvement such as reduced rates of depression and anxiety and greater quality of life. The Psychology of Religion and Coping: Theory, Research and Practice. [Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar]) presents a social psychological account of the early development of Christianity. Levin, J. S. (1994). Another way that religiousness may affect health is through social support. From a research perspective, studies of intercessory prayer have been cited to potentially support this position. For example, although some of the studies are of high scientific quality and were designed to look directly at the topic of religiousness and health, most studied religiousness as an afterthought. James W. Jones 1 Journal of Religion and Health volume 43, pages 317 – 328 (2004)Cite this article. Journal of Health Psychology 4, 291-300. Religion, Health, and the Psychology of Religion: How the Research on Religion and Health Helps Us Understand Religion | James W. Jones | download | BookSC. The best conclusion based on the scientific evidence is that religiousness or religious involvement appears to be related to better health and greater length of life. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 9: 291 – 306. Religion and spirituality have distinct but complementary influences on health, new research indicates. Although the terms are commonly used, their precise definitions are elusive. These behaviors have known health effects. (There is a promising psychological literature on religious fundamentalism and the separate phenomenon of religious violence, but it is largely American; see, for instance Ginges et al., 2009; Hood et al., 2005; Jones, 2008). These behaviors have known health effects. However, modern psychology recognizes that religion can play an important role in an individual's life and experiences and can even improve health and well-being. Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research. Thus, although for some specific diseases there are few published scientific investigations, overall there is a large collection of research that, when viewed together, supports the conclusion that religiousness is related to good health. Psychology of Religion and Health. Taking an eclectic approach to the study of human values, health, and emotional welfare, this international interdisciplinary journal publishes original peer-reviewed articles that deal with mental … This chapter discusses progress in the psychology of religion by highlighting its rapid growth during the past 25 years. Despite these conclusions, there is room for skepticism. Nevertheless, it is important for scientific investigators to carefully define what they are examining. Religion and Health Disclaimers: 1. (2000). Four most prominent such pathways have been proposed: health behaviors (through prescribing a certain diet and/or discouraging the abuse of alcoholic beverages, smoking, etc., religion can protect and promote a healthy lifestyle), social support (people can experience social contact with co-religionists and have a web of social relations that can help and protect whenever the case), … Religions provide answers to many of life’s biggest questions, such as why am I here, where am I going, what will happen to me when I die, how should I treat other people, and does my life really have meaning? This paper discusses some of the impli 555 Accesses. Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health and Medicine - August 2007 These behaviors have known health effects. First, Western society became more interested in multicultural understanding of human behavior and health. Spirituality and health: Is there a relationship? As well as the traditional focus on mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia, Professor Loewenthal also reviews the recent literature on the positive psychology of religion and happiness. In 2000, the American Psychological Association (APA) prominently featured works on integrating religion/spirituality and psychology in its publications catalogue and, later that same year, Ellis himself published an article admitting that even conservative religion can have positive mental health influences. Based on their research, psychologists might anticipate that a particular belief will cause those who believe it to respond in a certain way. This led to burgeoning emphasis on alternative medical treatments, some rooted in religious traditions. Journal home; Volumes and issues; Search within journal. This paper discusses some of the implications of this research for the ways in which religion might understood psychologically. Finally, some religious persons believe that their health benefits from direct intervention from God or a supernatural power. Several have been proposed. Claims about religious involvement and health outcomes. Whatever the reasons, the trend toward increased scientific study of the relation between religion and health continues. The predictability of the services along with their comforting message is likely to reduce distress for some. First, one way that religion affects health is by enforcing adherence to certain behavioral patterns based on religious beliefs. It is well known that these negative emotional states influence health in a detrimental manner. Most interpretations of this data focus on the presence of one or more mediating variables. In the 1960s and 1970s the interest in the psychology of religion grew as the humanistic approach made leeway over behaviorism. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 14—21. The articles highlight starting points and paths for continued growth in developing methodologies and theories that will allow atheists and the nonreligious to be understood apart from, yet compared with, their religious counterparts. Most of the research between religion and health is _____. These studies involve having patients with a given health condition being prayed for by other people. The authors examine the positive and negative effects of religion on health throughout the life span, from childhood to old age. Based on their findings, they build theoretical models illustrating the behavioral, psychological, social, and physiological pathways through which religion may influence health. Spirituality is similarly used to describe the individual, rather than the group, experience, and to some authors it is synonymous with religiousness. Again, progressive multivariate adjustments were done for age, gender, demographics, health status, physical functioning, health habits, social functioning and support, and psychological state., religious attendance did protect against mortality and the level of protectiveness grew when social support was involved, as well, showing a complementary trend between the two variables. Since then the topic has gained significant attention from scientists in many different fields including psychology, sociology, anthropology, epidemiology, medicine, nursing, and public health. The role of religion and spirituality in mental health Special issue of the APA journal Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Vol. Religious groups provide their members with contact with others who believe in many of the same principles and are often concerned about the welfare of other members of the group. Thus, it is believed that any beneficial differences found for those in the prayer group versus a control group that was not prayed for would be due to the prayer and, by implication, some higher power. This blog is presently being used to conduct research on certain aspects of Religion and Health. The familiarity and ritual of religious services may also provide a source of support or comfort to individuals who engage in religious activity. Several have been proposed. Psychology knows best the treatment of one addicted to religion. The journal publishes articles employing experimental and correlational methods, qualitative analyses, and critical reviews of the literature. The answer is obvious: psychology of religion comprises of the application of psychological methods and principles to religious traditions, as well as to persons whether religious or irreligious. This paper provides a concise but comprehensive review of research on religion/spirituality (R/S) and both mental health and physical health. It is important to note that almost all of the scientific research has concerned religiousness and not spirituality per se. Larson, D. B., Swyers, J. P., & McCullough, M. E. Religion and spirituality have the ability to promote or damage mental health. Special Section: Religion and Health Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Religion, Health, and the Psychology of Religion: How the Research on Religion and Health Helps Us Understand Religion. Researchers who study the psychology and neuroscience of religion are helping to explain why such beliefs are so enduring. The psychology of religion and coping. The journal publishes articles employing experimental and correlational methods, qualitative analyses, and critical reviews of the literature. Dr. Pargament is Editor-in-Chief of the 2013 two-volume APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality. Religiousness has also been related to longer life in numerous studies. Psychology barely features among the funded projects, perhaps because psychology of religion has such a low public profile in Britain. Effects of religion on mental and physical health. Religion and health: Is there an association, is it valid, and is it causal? Sloan, R. P. & Bagiella, E. (2002). 24 Citations. However, by the turn of the millennium, psychology was showing belated signs of trying to catch up in its study of religion and its effects, with the appearance of textbooks on the psychology of religion (e.g. In fact, studies have shown that religion can help people develop healthy habits, regulate their behaviors, and understand their emotions—all factors that can affect your health. Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD, is a leading expert in the psychology of religion and spirituality. John T Hinnels) notes that some devotees of religion are not terribly pleased about such attempts as it seems to reduce religion to psychology. Some of the studies of religiousness have similarly produced insubstantial findings. He was the 2009 Margaret Gorman early career award winner from the American Psychological Association. These aspects will hopefully be better defined as the research proceeds further. Scientific research on spirituality and health: A consensus report. Journal of Religion and Health explores the most contemporary modes of religious and spiritual thought with particular emphasis on their relevance to current medical and psychological research. A person's roots are always the best way and place to start in treating his unusual habits. Religious involvement, measured by attendance at services and feelings of religiosity, is positively associated with physical health, general happiness, and satisfaction, as well as being inversely related to undesirable social psychological states, such as depression. The psychology of religion tries to study religion so far as it can be explained psychologically. Spirituality has been ascribed many different definitions in different contexts, but a general definition is: an individual's search for meaning and purpose in life. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 3-13. Health Psychology 19, 211-222. Religion can serve as a source of comfort and strength when people are under stress. Argyle & Beit-Hallahmi, 1997; Paloutzian, 1996), books on religion and mental health (e.g. Most interpretations of this data focus on the presence of one or more mediating variables. Thoresen, C. E. (1999). He has written two books: “The Psychology of Religion and Coping: Theory, Research, Practice” (1997) … For example, many religious groups teach abstinence or moderation of alcohol use, abstinence from tobacco, or consumption of a vegetarian … To the extent that religions provide comforting answers to these questions, they may help individuals live lives that are relatively free of depression, anxiety, and worry. The belief systems found in religious codes may provide a buffer for these challenging and potentially stressful aspects of human existence. For example, many religious groups teach abstinence or moderation of alcohol use, abstinence from tobacco, or consumption of a vegetarian diet. Freud, S. The future of an illusion; Civilization and its discontents and other works 1961 - Hogarth Press - London. Many, however, distinguish spirituality from religiousness on the basis of whether a societal institution (e.g., a church) is involved. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 9: 291 – 306. This paper discusses some of the implications of this research for the ways in which religion might understood psychologically. Argyle & Beit-Hallahmi, 1997; Paloutzian, 1996), books on religion and mental health (e.g. Hood has also been editor of the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion and is currently coeditor of Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion. Volume 59 February - December 2020. Research on spirituality is underway and more will be known in the near future. An increasing replication of studies find a correlation between religious belief and practice and mental and physical health and longevity. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 1475-1484. Background Generic health‐related quality of life (QoL) instruments have not routinely assessed spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs (SRPB) in their measurement. For example, some Christians believed that good health was the result of proper Christian living and poor health was a punishment for sin. Concepts of health and illness in human society originated from traditional religious views about life and death. Religion, Health, and the Psychology of Religion: How the Research on Religion and Health Helps Us Understand Religion JAMES W. JONES ABSTRACT: An increasing replication of studies find a correlation between religious belief and practice and mental and physical health and longevity. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 14(2), pp.91-108. Second, many patients became unsatisfied with modern medicine, believing that it had become too technology driven, specialized, and impersonal, and had consequently sacrificed uniquely individual aspects and treatment of the whole person. There is considerable literature on the relationship between religion and health. Religious Trauma Syndrome (RTS) is a new term, coined by Marlene Winell to name a recognizable set of symptoms experienced as a result of prolonged exposure to a toxic religious environment and/or the trauma of leaving the religion. Dan Merkur in his “Psychology of Religion” in The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion (ed. : The Answers to Life’s Everyday Question (in 50 F*@#ing Recipes) – Best Diet Books. The views expressed on this blog belong to the authors of the posts only or the authors quoted and the blog management takes no responsibility for the views expressed. Recent conceptual and empirical developments are described, with an emphasis on the cognitive and affective basis of religious experience within personality and social psychology. Though the relation between religious or spiritual dimensions of life and health has been a significant concern, it was not until the 20th century that notable scientific evidence addressed this topic. It is not easy to remove the religious and negative habits of worship without looking at an individual's personal background. Book. Peter C. Hill, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Biola University’s Rosemead School of Psychology in La Mirada, California. First, one way that religion affects health is by enforcing adherence to certain behavioral patterns based on religious beliefs. Throughout history, civilizations believed that health and disease were related to particular religious beliefs or practices. Consequently, what follows is best described as a review pertaining to religiousness and health. The 1990s saw continuing research on religion-related topics, as well as impressive meta-analytic reviews of the area supporting a positive view of religion. [53] The journal "American Psychologist" published important papers on this topic in 2003. Based on their findings, they build theoretical models illustrating the behavioral, psychological, social, and physiological pathways through which religion may influence health. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an … Kenneth Pargament is a professor emeritus of psychology at Bowling Green State University. In other words, what mechanisms may account for the relationship between religiousness and health? It is important to note that these effects are small and are often found for only a few of many health variables studied. They view the individuals experience in the context of a defined religion as religiousness. An increased interest in the effects of religion and spirituality on health is apparent in the psychological and medical literature. Thus, although the best evidence suggests a beneficial effect of religiousness on health, there is room for further investigation of this topic and for healthy skepticism about how strong this effect may be. December 2020, issue 6; October 2020, issue 5. Some specific findings from particular studies indicate that religious involvement is related to lower rates of many diseases including heart disease and heart attacks, high blood pressure, emphysema, cirrhosis of the liver, lung cancer, and suicide. More precise measurement of the dimensions of religiousness and spirituality and stronger scientific studies will facilitate better understanding of which aspects have prohealth impacts and which may have detrimental effects. Pargament, K. I. 4 Kroll, J, Sheehan, W. Religious beliefs and practice among 52 psychiatric inpatients in Minnesota. Find books He was the 2009 Margaret Gorman early career award winner from the American Psychological Association. Journal of Religion and Health. how you measure religion and health. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality ® publishes peer-reviewed, original articles related to the psychological aspects of religion and spirituality. 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