Although the concept of an individual may seem straightforward, there are many ways of understanding it, both in theory and in practice. KEYWORDS: Alienation, Rootlessness, Identity, Isolation, Randomness, Predicament, Existentialism, Existence. So, what relevance does literature have in modern society? It not only emphasized the direct responsibility of each individual for his own salvation but also the fact that through prayer and reading of scriptures the individual might have direct access to God without relying upon any intercession in his behalf by a special priesthood. Literature in education. Modern philosophy has highly influenced by Descartes’ conception of rationality. Stress on Individual. Literary modernism, or modernist literature, originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction. Henceforth, there is no ecclesiastical, authoritative, moral law, the Church does not shoulder the responsibility for the individual; the only rule for conduct is the impulse of the individual conscience. Experimentation became highly desirable and instrumental to self-discovery, while individualism was prized above all else. literature 2. In modernist literature, man is assured that his own sense of morality trumps. Christian philosophers like St. Paul, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Gogori-I, Pope Glacious-I etc. They empha­sized that man by his own efforts or works alone can get salvation. His “doubting”, therefore, had an element of artificiality about it. Liberalism was a product of the climate of opinion that emerged at the time of the Renaissance and the Reformation. He is not selfish, competitive or aggressive. Modernist literature came into its own … Thus, the individual personality should be cherished and allowed to flourish in an atmosphere of maximum freedom. Since Hobbes denies the authority of God and of reason, the only way out of his predicament is the substitution of an artificial authority created by individual acts of will and embodied in an absolute sovereign will. His first concern, as a consequence, would be security and “peace would be the first law of nature”. This tutelage is self-imposed when its cause lies not in the lack of under­standing but in a lack of resolution and courage…. The history of American literature can be divided into five periods: Colonial and Early National, Romantic, Realism and Naturalism, Modernist, and Contemporary. Martin Luther and John Calvin can easily be cited here. Individualism is a moral stance and a philosophical concept which puts emphasis on the moral worth and the supreme and intrinsic value of human beings (Lukes 51). As a consequence of this strife, three kinds of law arise: political law, governing the relations of the governors to the governed; civil law, governing the relations of one individual to another; and the laws of nations, governing the relations between nations. The basis of civil society is a contract. Man is totally depraved. For the reason to which appeal was made as the ultimate authority, was a reason ‘freed’ from the revelation of God in Christ but bound by the truths of Nature as revealed by the methods of scientific empiricism. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. He was the great advocate of individual freedom and that is why he endeavoured to discover the checks on political authority by means of which it might be secured. Characteristics of Modernism: Rationalism, Individualism and Universalism! They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think; every effort we can make to throw off our subjection, will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it … The principle of utility recognizes this subjection, and assumes it for the foundation of that system, the object of which is to rear the fabric of felicity by the hands of reason and of law.”. This implies “being left to oneself. We’ve got you covered. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. In an age of violence and political instability he would appear to value stability above justice, not understanding, apparently, that genuine order is a product of justice. You can order professional work according to specific instructions and 100% plagiarism free. They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think; every effort we can make to thrown off our subjection, will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it… The principle of utility recognizes this subjection, and assumes it for the foundation of that system, the object of which is to rear the fabric or felicity by the hands of reason and of law. They were movements that influenced art, architecture, literature, culture, and society at large. Inner and Outer Worlds; the Internal and External in James Joyce’s ‘ulysses’ and the Poetry of T. S. Eliot Essay, A Study into General Ulysses Grant’s Personality Essay, Burlesque and Diegetic Trolling: Analyzing the Erratic Narratives in the Cyclops Essay, Experience, Dialect, and Logic in Ulysses and Waiting for Godot Essay, Joyce’s Use Of Dog Imagery In Ulysses Essay, Modern Matriarchs: Addie, Molly, and the Remarkable Idealism of Joycean Perspective Essay, Compare and Contrast Two or Three Episodes from Ulysses Essay. This weapon must prove its strength in action … Religion is only good if it produces good order, and good order is generally attended with good fortune and success in any under taking. Like Hobbes, Locke also described the universal nature of men. For the demonstration of truth, these scientists would substitute a method of discovering truth. He separated politics from religion and ethics. Religion has become a mere tool in the hands of the political rulers. He is also a machine, more complicated then plants and beasts, but composed as they are, and as the universe is, of moving particles. There is nothing like our ideas, existing in the bodies themselves. In this state man had no knowledge but only the potentiality for learning. Modernism in literature. In Modernist literature, the individual is more interesting than society. Montesquieu also made a valuable contribution in developing the basic norms of individualism. For Locke, state comes into the existence for the welfare of society. …man is a rational being, capable of living in a society. The Stoic philosophy of universalism may also be seen in the philosophy of Roman jurisprudence. That is why; he demanded that power should be a check to power. When you talk about Modernism in literature, you generally talk about the literary movement that started as an expression of the similarly-named movement in art. The sterility of modern society in fact catalyzed the experimental and groundbreaking new forms of art and literature. In this way, Locke contributed a lot in developing the modern concept of rationalism. Full gluey woman’s lips” (Joyce 65). Individual freedom was its major premise as well as its goal. Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction The horrors of World War I (1914-19), with its accompanying atrocities and senselessness became the catalyst for the Modernist movement in literature and art. Imagism was an early 20th-century movement in poetry which was derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry; and stressed on clarity, precision and economy of language. It was not that the eighteenth century substituted reason for faith as some suppose, but that it exchanged, one kind of faith for another, a faith in the methods of scientific empiricism for those of theology. From a literary perspective, the main characteristics of modernism included: 1. The process of secularization has come to its close, for the secular state exists not only de facto but also de jure, it has found its definite theoretical legitimization. Man is confronted for the first time with a dual loyalty – a loyalty to Caesar and a loyalty to God. This mechanical law is the theory of universe. Of course, he would submit to the authority of conscience, but it would be his conscience. Luther was very much clear that justification is a personal experience requiring neither priesthood nor Church for its meditation. Concerned with the sub-conscious. He then argued that God would not deceive the thinking beings whom He had created and that as consequence there must be some real world revealed to us through our perceptions. They are, in the bodies we denom­inate from them, only a power to produce those sensations in us: and what is sweet, blue or warm in idea is but the certain bulk, figure and motion of the insensible parts, in the bodies themselves, which we call so.” It follows from this that “the mind … hath no other immediate object but its own ideas” and that knowledge is “nothing but the perception of the connation or any agreement of disagreement and repugnancy of any of our ideas. Examine the significance of Modernism in literature. They belong not to the things themselves but are a part of the subjective experience of the person perceiving them. February 2018 0 Harald Sack. 2018 Jun 12 [cited 2020 Dec 21]. To this end, he developed a theory of ‘separation of powers’. Concerned with politics as it “is” rather than with politics as it “ought to be”, Machiavelli laid the foundation for a modem political science and anticipated the attempts of the nineteenth century’s positivists to found a natural science of politics. He was not as much immoral as he was non-moral. Myths of Modern Individualism Faust, Don Quixote, Don Juan, Robinson Crusoe. His disciples, who were plunged into despair as He lay dying in agony upon the cross condemned by the world for his innocence hastened later when He appeared to them in life to bring this good news to all who would listen. Besides, it demands for natural rights of men because, they have the mind, the reason to divide what is right or wrong. Individualism Post-Modernism is, in essence, an individualist philosophy. It was the Enlightenment movement through which the universal nature of political philosophy was extended. Alienation is a predominant mood in modernist works of art, and irony is often also a large part of Modernist works. General Will is the total of the ideal will of individual which emerged in the form of moral societal rule. Modernism is the deliberate break from the traditional form of poetry and prose that took place in the late 19 th and early 20 th century. It was an age marked by a passionate avowal of the self-sufficiency of human reason and by a faith in the capacity of men to establish paradise on earth by their own powers and in their own image. In fact, it was the Stoic philosophy from where universal or essential conception of human being was emerged. The “chief pastor” among all pastors within a commonwealth cannot be anyone else than “the civil sovereign”. 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